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( in Greek pathos – suffering, disease; physis – nature, essence; logos – the study of ) may be literally translated from Greek as «The study of the nature and origins of disease».
Academic pathophysiology is a clinically oriented training course and a scientific discipline which:
• discovers and describes consistent patterns as well as precise causes and mechanisms of emergence, development and outcomes of diseases, pathological processes, states and reactions;
• determines principles and methods for their diagnosis, treatment and prevention;
• formulates theory of disease and ill organism in general, basic principles and concepts of biology and medicine.
The subject of pathophysiological studies may embrace:
• diseases, morbid conditions, pathological syndromes, states, processes and reactions;
• typical pathological processes;
• typical forms of pathology of tissues, organs and their systems.
The leading method of pathophysiology is modeling of diseases, pathological syndromes, states, processes and reactions as well as modeling of whole patient.
The objectives of pathophysiology in medical university educational process are:
l to acquire the skills to:
a) conduct pathophysiological analysis of patients with respect to causes, mechanisms and outcomes of leading pathological processes and forms of pathology;
b) formulate principles and substantiate methods for their diagnosis, treatment and prevention;
l to develop methodological grounds and intellectual tools for efficient clinical reasoning and practical activity in health care field.
Pathophysiological analysis of clinical cases (exercised by students during training classes) helps to develop clinical thinking and problem-solving strategies based on thorough understanding of the patient.
Three generations of talented educators and well-known researchers worked in the Department of Pathophysiology contributing their shares to make it meet international quality standards in the field of education of both scientific researchers and clinical health workers.
The Department employees are involved in promising scientific research as well. Education staff members of the Department of Pathophysiology:
l studied the key role of reactive oxygen species and free radicals (including organic and inorganic molecules) in adaptive reactions in normal conditions and especially in such forms of pathology as tumors, atherosclerosis, coronary insufficiency and myocardial infarction, gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, drug addiction (scientific works by professors A.Kh. Kogan, P.F. Litvitskiy, S.V. Pirozhkov, assistant professor A.S. Sizykh);
l discovered and described the substantial features of pathogenesis, methods of diagnosis and treatment of such processes/forms of pathology as hypoxia, disorders of respiratory system, kidneys and liver, hemostatic system, ischemic stroke, the systemic form of arthritis, serum sickness, peritonitis, disorders of the protein metabolism (scientific works by professors N.I. Losev, V.A. Voynov, S.V. Pirozhkov, O.L. Morozova, assistant professors S.P. Sergeeva, V.V. Padalko, T.E. Karaoglanova, I.A. Budnik, Z.SH. Manasova, L.D. Maltseva, N.V. Samburova, post graduate V.N. Sakharov);
l described the mechanisms of tissue and organ injury in alcoholism and some forms of substance abuse (scientific works by professors S.V. Pirozhkov, E.B. Tezikov);
l substantiated the concept of coronary insufficiency as a combination of ischemic and reperfusion syndromes, and not only ischemic as had been believed before (scientific work by professor P.F. Litvitskiy);
l developed the concept of reperfusion cardiac syndrome in patients with transitory coronary insufficiency (scientific work by professor P.F. Litvitskiy);
l revealed the consistent behavioral patterns observed in students with psychoemotional stress (scientific work by assistant professor N.S. Andriutsa).
The scientific school of the Department of Pathophysiology of I.M. Sechenov First MSMU gave a significant contribution to the regional and international pathophysiology, pathology and clinical medicine. Notable staff and alumni of the school were the Heads of Departments and laboratories in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kiev, Grozny, Warsaw, Oxford as well as in some other world universities.
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